Pharmacokinetic (PK) modelling has been used by drug developers for seventy years. Pharmacodynamic (PD) modelling, which studies drug effects, rather than drug concentrations, has been less widely used. PD endpoints have often been difficult to measure, and their analysis has been more computationally complex. The first of these limitations has been eased by the recent upsurge in biomarker measurements; now the second limitation has been addressed by more powerful computational tools.
PDMODEL provides a choice of PK data fitting and modelling tools, including parametric and nonparametric PK models and physiologically-based (PB-PK) modelling. A wide range of direct and indirect PD models can be coupled to the PK models. For anticancer drugs, a common PD endpoint is tumour cell apoptosis, and PDMODEL has been used to model biomarkers of apoptosis.